First was a period from roughly 1000-1250 BCE, under the state of Kievan Rus'. This state was the predecessor of Ukraine, Russia, and Belarus, and served as the foundation for the cultures of these areas. The architecture of this era strongly resembles that of the Byzantine empire, with thick walls and helmeted cupolas.
|Palace of the Patriarch of Moscow, with the Church of the Twelve Apostles (1653)|
In Imperial Russia, trends turned towards European styles. Peter I favored Petrine Baroque, whereas Catherine the Great brought in neoclassical architects to create the projects she favored. Elements like many windows and long palaces were favored in this period, such as is evidenced in the Winter Palace, built from 1762-1796.
The Post-Revolution and Post-Soviet Union eras of architecture very much reflect the times, with stark, clean, lines, and many columns. Rounded buildings were also favored in some areas, like as with the Melnikov House. Currently in Russia, Stalinist designs are favored, though there have been shifts to architecture which matches the grand skyscraper designs found in large cities across the world.